SUMMARY OF SEASONAL FORECAST DATA FOR UK AND EIRE

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Experimental Seasonal Forecast for UK and Eire area - updated as new data becomes available. Previous summary - February 2019 data

Summary of experimental Seasonal Forecasts for the UK and Eire



Updated 180319(ddmmyy). Typically updated on Thursday/Friday. Main updates may be noted on Twitter @T2mike

This month and next latest
Seasonal text latest



Data awaited from GLOBAL PRODUCING CENTRES

USA - NCEP CFS2 (periodic updates), Korea APCC, UKMO Contingency. Missing data. India Met Office IMO See monthly graphics from WMO for South Africa Weather Service (SAWS) LRF, Japan JMA.

Data sources available on date: USA - NCEP CFS2 (280219 060319 120319 160319 ) Temperature graphics (130319) E3 graphics (120319), CanSips 280219, USA NASA GMAO GSFC 060319, US National Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) 080319, NMME and CFS2 graphics NMME and CFS2 graphics 080319, DWD+MONTREAL monthly graphics 090319, BCC China 110319, UKMO seasonal 110319, Monthly graphics UKMO+BOM+SEOUL 120319, Pretoria+Tokyo graphics 130319, ECMWF monthly graphics 140319, Japan JMA 140319, CopernicusEU MME (UKMO MereoFr ECMWF DWD and CMCC) 140319, Toulouse graphics 140319, International IMME 150319, Brazil predicted sea temps (KUO and RAS) 150319, JAMSTEC 150319, Russia (from wmo) monthly graphics 150319, ECMWF multi model probility graphics 180319, WMO combined multi model probility graphics,
Data received after summary written. USA - IRI 160319



Nino 3.4 (plots as available): CFS2 updated daily. NMME Nino 3.4. UKMO Tropical N Atlantic plot and NAO. Click image for details.
ENSO CFS latest ENSO NNME latest UKMO Tropical N Atlantic




CFS2 temperature plots for 40+ weeks (in 6 hour steps) from 00Z on date shown
Perth Birmingham
Exeter London



SEASONAL FORECAST summary of output
(Data date shown as ddmmyy).


To view an attempt at regional detail for SW England click here by about the 20th of each month



2019 APR MAY JUN

Summary - 15 March 2019 - Above normal temperatures and wetter start then drier than average end to season.
Temperature - Moscow below normal with Melborne and Pretoria models showing normal with a hint of below normal temperatures but the vast majority of solutions show above normal temperatures monthly and for the season. There is a hint that the north may be neaer normal and that May might have slightly lower anomalies than other months.
Precipitation - Not a consistent indication from the models but majority support for wetter start and drier end to the season, possibly with the wetter weather in the W in April, N in May and then generally drier than average for June. Moscow and Melborne are wetter, especially in the S of UK throught, and UKMO Exeter suggests wetter June in S half of UK but normal to drier overall for the season.



NCEP Mean of 40 runs over preceding 10 days. 100KM resolution output. Anomalies wrt 1999-2010 hindcast climatology. (Normal is +/-0.5C from model hindcast mean).


USA - NCEP CFS2 - 160319
TEMP: Season: normal but above in all S of England
APR normal MAY normal locally above in SW and far SE England JUN above normal
PPN: Season:normal but below in E Wales Midlands SE England and N half of Scotland
APR normal locally below in NW Scotland MAY normal but below in S and W Eire and Wales JUN normal in W Eire elsewhere below normal

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 120319 - ignoring suspect colder area NE England.
TEMP: Season: S England above elsewhere normal
APR normal MAY normal but above in Wales, SW, S and SE England JUN above normal but normal in E Scotland, S Scotland and all N England
PPN: Season:normal but below in central and N Scotland
APR normal locally above in SW Eire MAY normal JUN below normal

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 060319
TEMP: Season: above normal
APR above normal MAY above normal JUN above normal but NE England normal
PPN: Season: normal but locally below in Wales , Midlands and NE Scotland
APR above noral in W Eire and NW Scotland, below in E Midlands and SE England elsewhere normal MAY normal JUN below normal

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 280219
TEMP: Season: above normal
APR above normal MAY above normal but W Eire normal JUN above normal
PPN: Season: mostly below normal but normal in SW England N Ireland and NW Scotland
APR England Wales and Fife/Perthshire below normal elsewhere normal MAY normal but SE England above, Eire, N Ireland NW England and W/central Scotland below JUN below but in S well below normal



From APRIL 2017 output based on recalibrated NMME.
IRI multi-model ensemble information
USA - IRI - 160319 -forecasts tends to be overly warm
Temp: E Eire, Wales and southern two thirds of England above normal elsewhere no signal.
PPN : SW England (and NW France) above normal, London area below normal elsewhere no signal



Russia 150319 (wmo source) see also monthly graphics
Temp: below normal
PPN : above normal



Copernicus C3S - new climate sizes and additional models November 2018
From November 2018, hindcast period 1993-2016. (Previously hindcast period is 1993-2015 for ECMWF and Met Office and 1993-2014 for Météo-France). Copernicus(EU) C3S multi model ensemble - 140319
Mean anomaly near normal (+/-0.2C). Tercile signal. (UT/MT/LT= upper/middle/lower tercile).
TEMP: above normal
PPN: normal
PMSL: above normal
CMCC(IT) 50 members 960 climate size -
TEMP: above normal
PPN: normal
PMSL: normal (Scandinavia above)
DWD(DE) 50 members 720 climate size -
TEMP: above normal
PPN: Normal but N above, Eire and parts of S below
PMSL: above normal
ECMWF(EU) 51 members 600 climate size -
TEMP: above normal
PPN: N and E normal, S and W below
PMSL: above normal
UKMO(GB) 50 members 672 climate size -
TEMP: above normal
PPN: normal but N below
PMSL: above normal
METEO FRANCE(FR) 51 members 600 climate size -
TEMP: above normal
PPN: Eire, Wales and SW third of England below elserwhere normal
PMSL: above normal




UKMO - 110319 - (Glosea5 0.8*0.5 deg [50km] resolution 2 runs daily accumulated ensemble over 3 weeks [42 members] 85 levels 75 ocean levels)
TEMP: above with chance of well above normal
PPN : North half UK and SW England below elsewhere normal. Chance well below away from S.
PSML: Above or well above normal



BCC China BCC CSM1.1m Second generation coupled model. 24 memebers. Atmospheric component is BCC_AGCM2.2 at T106 horizontal resolution (about 1 degree) and 26 vertical layer.
BCC China BCC CSM1.1m - 110319 -
TEMP: Season: slightly above normal
APR above normal MAY above normal JUN above normal
PPN: Season: above normal
APR above normal MAY above normal JUN below normal



USA NASA GMAO GSFC 060319
TEMP:
APR above normal MAY normal locally above normal in Wales and E England JUN above normal
PPN : Season
APR above normal MAY above normal but below in NW below normal JUN below normal but above locally in NE England



Meteorological Service of Canada, CanSIPS forecasts are based on a 10-member ensemble of forecasts produced with each of two CCCma climate models for a total ensemble size of 20. Hindcast period 1981 to 2010. CanSips is included in the NMME.
CanSIPS - 280219
TEMP:
APR above normal MAY above normal JUN above normal
PPN :
APR SW Eire above normal, S England below normal elsewhere normal MAY S below NW above elsewhere normal JUN N half below S normal



Indication from Multi Model Ensemble (NMME) ex NOAA date - 08319
TEMP: season: High probs above normal (all 7 models)
PPN rate: S England below normal elsewhere normal. 4 out of 7 models below normal in S, 1 (NASA) above normal otherwise normal.



Indication from International Multi Model Ensemble (IMME) ex NOAA date - 150319
TEMP: season - above normal (each month above)
PPN rate: Season - normal (each month norma)




NMME and CFS2 Graphics

CFS2 MAX and MIN not shown
TX TX TX

TN TN TN

CFS2 TEMP

T T T

CFS2 PPN

P P P


NMME MAX and MIN not available

NMME TEMP:

T T T



NMME PPN rate:

P P P


NMME TEMP PROBS:

T T T

NMME PPN:
P P P



UK area Plotted from 1 deg grib NMME ENS Temp and PPN rate mean anomaly
T T T

P P P
200hPa height mean CFS2 data 1 deg grib

200


CFS2 E3 ensemble of 10 days of model runs updated on date shown.
TN2 TN3 TN7

TN5 TN6 TN8


WMO combined multi model monthly 180319 - model probability of anomaly.
200

DWD monthly
200

ECMWF monthly (anomaly not probs)
200

ECMWF monthly low resolution model probability of anomaly from WMO
200

Canada monthly
200

UKMO monthly
200

BOM monthly
200

SEOUL monthly
200

Pretoria monthly
200
Tokyo monthly
200
Toulouse monthly
200
Beijing monthly
200

Washington monthly
200

Moscow monthly
200


2019 MAY JUN JUL




USA - NCEP CFS2 - 160319
TEMP:
MAY normal locally above in SW and far SE England JUN above normal JUL above normal A
PPN:
MAY normal but below in S and W Eire and Wales JUN normal in W Eire elsewhere below normal JUL normal but above in SW Eire and NW/Central Scotland

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 120319 - ignoring suspect colder area NE England.
TEMP:
MAY normal but above in Wales, SW, S and SE England JUN above normal but normal in E Scotland, S Scotland and all N England JUL Eire normal elsewhere above
PPN:
MAY normal JUN below normal JUL normal locally above in SW Eire W Scotland and Liverpool area

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 060319
TEMP:
MAY above normal JUN above normal but NE England normal JUL normal but Cornwall and E Anglia above normal
PPN:
MAY normal JUN below normal JUL normal but above in SW Scotland, Cornwall and NE Midlands

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 280219
TEMP:
MAY above normal but W Eire normal JUN above normal JUL normal but S England above
PPN:
MAY normal but SE England above, Eire, N Ireland NW England and W/central Scotland below JUN below but in S well below normal JUL Wales and S thuird of England below, NW Scotland above elsewhere normal l



USA NASA GMAO GSFC 060319
TEMP:
MAY normal locally above normal in Wales and E England JUN above normal JUL above normal
PPN : Season
MAY above normal but below in NW below normal JUN belopw normal but above locally in NE England JUL



BCC China BCC CSM1.1m - 110319 -
TEMP:
MAY above normal JUN above normal JUL above normal
PPN:
MAY above normal JUN below normal JUL below normal in Eire, N Ireland, Scotland N England and SW England elsewhere above normal



CanSIPS - 280219
TEMP:
MAY above normal JUN above normal JUL above normal
PPN :
MAY S below NW above elsewhere normal JUN N half below S normal JUL N Scotland normal elsewhere below





2019 JUN JUL AUG


Summary - 15/3/2019 - Main indication for is for above normal temperatures for the season although August may be nearer normal. Rainfall probably below normal for the season. Monthly detail suggests drier June, and perhaps also July and in the N and W but not much agreement for August. Wetter areas uncertain but possibly increased risk of above average rain in August.




USA - NCEP CFS2 - 160319
TEMP: Season: above normal
JUN above normal JUL above normal AUG W Eire and NE England normal elsewhere above normal
PPN: Season: normal but below in SW England
JUN normal in W Eire elsewhere below normal JUL normal but above in SW Eire and NW/Central Scotland AUG normal but locally above in Midlands central Eire and N half of Scotland.

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 120319 - ignoring suspect colder area NE England.
TEMP: Season: above normal
JUN above normal but normal in E Scotland, S Scotland and all N England JUL Eire normal elsewhere above AUG above normal
PPN: Season: normal locally below in parts of Scotland
JUN below normal JUL normal locally above in SW Eire W Scotland and Liverpool area AUG normal locally below in N Ireland but above in parts of E Midlands

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 060319
TEMP: Season: normal but above in SW England and E Anglia
JUN above normal but NE England normal JUL normal but Cornwall and E Anglia above normal AUG normal
PPN: Season: normal
JUN below normal JUL normal but above in SW Scotland, Cornwall and NE Midlands AUG Above normal in Wales, Midlands and SE England elsewhere normal

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 280219
TEMP: Season: normal but above in S and E Eire, SW Scotland, Wales and SW quarter of England
JUN above normal JUL normal but S England above AUG normal but above in Eire, N Ireland, Wales, SW England and W Argyll.
PPN: Season: Below in S Eire Wales and S half of England except SW England. Otherwise normal
JUN below but in S well below normal JUL Wales and S thuird of England below, NW Scotland above elsewhere normal AUG normal



USA - IRI - 160319 -forecasts tends to be overly warm
Temp: Scotland, England and Wales above normal elsewhere no signal
PPN : Most of England and Wales and N of Scotland below normal elsewhere no signal



Brazil Persisted (predicted NYR) sea temps (KUO) - two outputs schemes - 150319
Temp: above normal
PPN : normal but above in SW England
PMSL: below normal
Brazil predicted sea temps (RAS)
Temp: normal localy above in far SW
PPN : normal localy above in far SW



http://www.jamstec.go.jp/frcgc/research/d1/iod/sintex_f1_forecast.html.en
jamstec.go.jp Hindcasts 1983 to 2006
JAMSTEC SINTEX-F1 CGCM forecast (27-member ensemble) - 150319
Temp: Season: BELOW NORMAL
PPN : Season: Eire below, hint of above in Scotland elsewhere normal



Copernicus C3S - new climate sizes and additional models November 2018
From November 2018, hindcast period 1993-2016. (Previously hindcast period is 1993-2015 for ECMWF and Met Office and 1993-2014 for Météo-France). Copernicus(EU) C3S multi model ensemble - 140319
Mean anomaly near normal (+/-0.2C). Tercile signal. (UT/MT/LT= upper/middle/lower tercile).
TEMP: above normal
PPN: normal
PMSL: normal locally above in N and W
CMCC(IT) 50 members 960 climate size -
TEMP: normal
PPN: normal but Wales and much of England above
PMSL: normal
DWD(DE) 50 members 720 climate size -
TEMP: above normal
PPN: below normal
PMSL: above normal
ECMWF(EU) 51 members 600 climate size -
TEMP: above normal
PPN: normal or below
PMSL: above normal
UKMO(GB) 50 members 672 climate size -
TEMP: above normal
PPN: normal or above
PMSL: normal
METEO FRANCE(FR) 51 members 600 climate size -
TEMP: above normal
PPN: Wales above, NW Eire and NW UK below elsewhere normal
PMSL: normal but below normal in S Europe/Med




UKMO - 110319 -
TEMP: above normal chance well above (higher probs away from S)
PPN : S normal elsewhere above normal with chance of well above normal except NE England where chance of well below normal
PSML: no strong signals but perhaps near normal in the N but the S may be above
Enhanced WSW 500hPa flow near and SW of UK.



BCC China BCC CSM1.1m - 110319 -
TEMP: Season: above normal
JUN above normal JUL above normal AUG E Eire SW England and Scotland above elsewhere below
PPN: Season: S England above elsewhere below
JUN below normal JUL below normal in Eire, N Ireland, Scotland N England and SW England elsewhere above normal AUG S above normal N below normal



USA NASA GMAO GSFC 060319
TEMP:
JUN above normal JUL above normal AUG above normal
PPN : Season
JUN belopw normal but above locally in NE England JUL England and Wales below elsewhere mostly above normal AUG below normal



CanSIPS - 280219
TEMP:
JUN above normal JUL above normal AUG Normal but Cornwall and SE England above normal
PPN :
JUN N half below S normal JUL N Scotland normal elsewhere below AUG England and Wales normal elsewhere above



Indication from Multi Model Ensemble (NMME) ex NOAA date - 080319
TEMP: season : Above normal. 6 models above 1 normal.
PPN rate: S England and far N Scotland below elsewhere normal. 2 models below elsewhere normal.



Indication from International Multi Model Ensemble (IMME) ex NOAA date - 150319
TEMP: season - above normal (each month above)
PPN rate: Season - normal (each month norma)




NMME Graphics

CFS2 MAX and MIN
TX TX TX

TN TN TN

CFS2 TEMP

T T T

CFS2 PPN

P P P


NMME MAX and MIN not available

NMME TEMP:

T T T



NMME PPN rate:

P P P


NMME TEMP PROBS:

T T T

NMME PPN:
P P P



UK area Plotted from 1 deg grib NMME ENS Temp and PPN rate mean anomaly
T T T

P P P
200hPa height anomaly CFS2 with mean CFS2 200hPa data 1 deg grib

200


CFS2 E3 ensemble of 10 days of model runs updated on date shown.
TN3 TN7 TN2

TN6 TN8 TN5

ECMWF monthly (caution new hindcast averaging period)
200


2019 JUL AUG SEP



USA - NCEP CFS2 - 160319
TEMP:
JUL above normal AUG W Eire and NE England normal elsewhere above normal SEP SW and NW Eire also NE England normal elsewhere above normal
PPN:
JUL normal but above in SW Eire and NW/Central Scotland AUG normal but locally above in Midlands central Eire and N half of Scotland SEP normal but above in E Midlands and below in N ireland SW and W Scotland.

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 120319 - ignoring suspect colder area NE England.
TEMP:
JUL Eire normal elsewhere above AUG above normal SEP above normal
PPN: :
JUL normal locally above in SW Eire W Scotland and Liverpool area AUG normal locally below in N Ireland but above in parts of E Midlands SEP normal locally above in SW Eire

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 060319
TEMP: Season: normal but above in SW England, SE England N and W Scotland
PPN: Season: normal locally above in central lowlands Scotland

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 280219
TEMP: Season: normal but above in N ireland, S and E Eire, Wales southernhalf of England and SW Scotland.
PPN: Season: Below in SE Eire, Wales and SW England, above in NW Scotland elsewhere normal



BCC China BCC CSM1.1m - 110319 -
TEMP:
JUL above normal AUG E Eire SW England and Scotland above elsewhere below SEP slightly above normal
PPN:
JUL below normal in Eire, N Ireland, Scotland N England and SW England elsewhere above normal AUG S above normal N below normal SEP S below normal, N above



USA NASA GMAO GSFC 060319
TEMP:
JUL above normal AUG above normal SEP above normal
PPN : Season
JUL England and Wales below elsewhere mostly above normal AUG below normal SEP above normal but N Scotland below



CanSIPS - 280219
TEMP:
JUL above normal AUG Normal but Cornwall and SE England above normal SEP above normal
PPN :
JUL N Scotland normal elsewhere below AUG England and Wales normal elsewhere above SEP Scotland and N Ireland above SE England below elsewhere normal





2019 AUG SEP OCT



USA - NCEP CFS2 - 160319
TEMP: Season: above normal
PPN: Season: normal loally above in SW Eire and Midlands

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 120319 - ignoring suspect colder area NE England.
TEMP: Season: above normal
PPN: Season: normal locally abopve in SW Midlands

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 060319
TEMP: Season: above normal but N Midlands and NE England normal
PPN: Season: normal

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 280219
TEMP: Season: above normal
PPN: Season: normal locally below in Devon and locally above in W Highland.



BCC China BCC CSM1.1m - 110319 -
TEMP:
AUG E Eire SW England and Scotland above elsewhere below SEP slightly above normal OCT slightly above normal
PPN: :
AUG S above normal N below normal SEP S below normal, N above OCT below normal in Eire, N Ireland, Scotland and SW England elsewhere above normal



USA NASA GMAO GSFC 060319
TEMP:
AUG above normal SEP above normal OCT above normal
PPN : Season
AUG below normal SEP above normal but N Scotland below OCT above normal



CanSIPS - 280219
TEMP:
AUG Normal but Cornwall and SE England above normal SEP above normal OCT Eire and NW Scotland normal elsewhere above normal
PPN :
AUG England and Wales normal elsewhere above SEP Scotland and N Ireland above SE England below elsewhere normal OCT Scotland N Ireland and Eire above elsewhere below





2019 SEP OCT NOV

Summary - 15/03/2019 - Above average temperatures but perhaps nearer normal in northern parts as season progresses. Drier start to season then wetter end. Overall totals near normal for season but wetter than average in Western and SW parts.




USA - NCEP CFS2 - 160319
TEMP: Season: normal
PPN: Season: normal locally above in SE Eire and E Wales

USA - NCEP CFS2 - 120319 - ignoring suspect colder area NE England.
TEMP: Season: above normal
PPN: Season: normal locally above in SW Eire



BCC China BCC CSM1.1m - 110319 -
TEMP: Season: slightly above normal
SEP slightly above normal OCT slightly above normal NOV Eire below elsewhere slightly above normal
PPN: Season: Above in SE England N England S Scotland, far N Scotland elsewhere below normal
SEP S below normal, N above OCT below normal in Eire, N Ireland, Scotland and SW England elsewhere above normal NOV England and Wales above elsewhere below



USA NASA GMAO GSFC 060319
TEMP:
SEP above normal OCT above normal NOV above normal
PPN : Season
SEP above normal but N Scotland below OCT above normal NOV above normal



CanSIPS - 280219
TEMP:
SEP above normal OCT Eire and NW Scotland normal elsewhere above normal NOV Eire, N Ireland and W Scotland normal elsewhere above
PPN :
SEP Scotland and N Ireland above SE England below elsewhere normal OCT Scotland N Ireland and Eire above elsewhere below NOV normal locally above in Cornwall





2019 OCT NOV DEC



BCC China BCC CSM1.1m - 110319 -
TEMP:
OCT slightly above normal NOV Eire belopw elsewhere slightly above normal DEC above normal
PPN:
OCT below normal in Eire, N Ireland, Scotland and SW England elsewhere above normal NOV England and Wales above elsewhere below DEC below but risk above in far SW



CanSIPS - 280219
TEMP:
OCT Eire and NW Scotland normal elsewhere above normal NOV Eire, N Ireland and W Scotland normal elsewhere above DEC normal
PPN :
OCT Scotland N Ireland and Eire above elsewhere below NOV normal locally above in Cornwall DEC normal





2019 NOV DEC 2020 JAN



BCC China BCC CSM1.1m - 110319 -
TEMP:
NOV Eire belopw elsewhere slightly above normal DEC above normal JAN above normal
PPN:
NOV England and Wales above elsewhere below DEC below but risk above in far SW JAN S UK above elsewhere below



CanSIPS - 280219
TEMP:
NOV Eire, N Ireland and W Scotland normal elsewhere above DEC normal JAN above normal
PPN :
NOV normal locally above in Cornwall DEC normal JAN N Scotland above S Eire and SW UK below elsewhere normal





2019 DEC 2020 JAN FEB

Summary - 15/3/2019 limited data - milder than average winter, wetter than avererage in the N possibly drier in S.



BCC China BCC CSM1.1m - 110319 -
TEMP: Season: above normal
DEC above normal JAN above normal FEB above normal
PPN: Season:
DEC below but risk above in far SW JAN S UK above elsewhere below FEB below normal



CanSIPS - 280219
TEMP:
DEC normal JAN above normal FEB normal but N England and Scotland above
PPN :
DEC normal JAN N Scotland above S Eire and SW UK below elsewhere normal FEB N Scotland normal elsewhere below





2020 JAN FEB MAR



BCC China BCC CSM1.1m - 110319 -
TEMP:
JAN above normal FEB above normal MAR above normal
PPN:
JAN S UK above elsewhere below FEB below normal MAR S above N below





NOTEs:
1. NORMAL=typically the model normal based on historic runs rather than the measured normal from observation - hence trends rather than numbers are a better guide.
2. CFS2 monthly and seasonal anomalies hindcast period 1982-2010.
3. CFS2 weekly anomalies are with respect to the lead dependent model climatology from the hindcast period (1999-2010) without any adjustment - a very warm decade!.
4. UKMET The hindcast period used for model normal is 1996 to 2009. 42-member ensemble seasonal forecast (120KM res over land) combining and bias correcting all forecast members available prior to issue.
5. JMA updated hindcast period 1981-2010
6. NOAA GFDL FLOR – 50KM resolution - Forecast­oriented Low Ocean Resolution version of CM2.5, substitutes 1­degree ocean for the 0.25­degree. 
7. NMME data, please see the BAMS article (Kirtman et al. 2014). The NMME project and data disseminating is supported by NOAA, NSF, NASA and DOE with the help of NCEP, IRI and NCAR personnel in creating, updating and maintaining the NMME archive.

KEY: UKMO=UK Met Office KMA= Korea Met Agency JMA=Japan Met Agency Russia=Hydrometcentre of Russia NOAA=main US climate data model used by Climate Prediction Centre.
Other N America data also used e.g. NASA and IRI. CMA=China Meteorological Administration. GFDL Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. CMC=Canada Met Center.


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